domingo, 17 de enero de 2016

Past Perfect Simple

Learning how to use the Past Perfect Simple:

 The past perfect tense is most often used for the following:
·         In Reported Speech
·         In if (conditional) sentences

For actions that happened before a past event

When we want to talk about an action that happened before a past event, we often use the past perfect. Look at these examples:
  • When I got home yesterday, my father had already cooked dinner.
  • I didn't want to go to the movies with my friends because I had seen the film already.
  • My friend offered me an apple in class yesterday, but I wasn't hungry because I had just eaten lunch.
  • I arrived very late at the party. All my friends had already gone home.
  • As soon as she had done her homework, she went to bed.
  • I was very tired as I hadn't slept well for several days.
  • Had you seen the film before?

In reported speech

The past perfect is common when we report people's words or thoughts .., as in the following examples:
  • John said that he had never eaten sushi before.
  • She told me that she had finished, but I knew she had not.
  • She wondered why he had been so unkind to her.
  • He told me he hadn't done his homework, but he was hoping to finish it on the bus.
  • I thought I had sent her a birthday card, but I was wrong.
In if (conditional) sentences

The past perfect tense is used in unreal or hypothetical stituations, as in the following sentences:
  • If I had known you were in Frankfurt, I would have called you. (but I didn't know you were here so I didn't call you!)
  • If I had had enough money, I would have bought you a better present. (but I didn't have enough money.)
  • I would have been very angy if you had laughed when I got the answer wrong. (but you didn't laugh, so I wasn't angry.)
  • She wouldn't have been able to finish, if you hadn't helped her. (but you did help her and she did finish.)
  • I wish I had studied for my exams. (but I didn't study - and I got bad grades!)
  • I would have been in big trouble if you hadn't helped me. (but you did help me so I stayed out of trouble.)
 Watch this video to understand it better: 

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